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Plant function and evolutionary biology

Functional Plant Biology

Functional Plant Biology

Functional Plant Biology publishes new and significant information on the functional biology of plants at all scales from the molecular through whole plant to community. Read more about the journalMore

Editor-in-Chief: Sergey Shabala

Current Issue

Functional Plant Biology

Volume 44 Number 9 2017

Flooding and Low Oxygen Responses in Plants

FPv44n9_FOFlooding and low oxygen responses in plants

Ole Pedersen, Pierdomenico Perata and Laurentius A. C. J. Voesenek
pp. iii-vi

This special issue presents key papers for plant scientists on the quest to further address and improve flood tolerance of terrestrial plants. The papers address low O2 responses in roots, shoots or whole plants in controlled laboratory conditions or in the field situation using natural wetland plants as models as well as economically important crops, such as rice, wheat and barley.


A barrier to radial oxygen loss (ROL) in roots is an important adaptation of many wetland plants growing in waterlogged, anoxic soils; however, knowledge of the nature of the barrier is sparse. The ROL barrier enhances longitudinal oxygen diffusion through aerenchyma to the root tip. Our comparison of two Hordeum marinum accessions differing in ROL barrier strength showed that the deposition of suberin into walls of the root exodermis is associated with reduction in loss of oxygen from basal root zones to the external medium.

FP16357Environmental factors constraining adventitious root formation during flooding of Solanum dulcamara

Qian Zhang, Heidrun Huber, Jannah W. T. Boerakker, Daniek Bosch, Hans de Kroon and Eric J. W. Visser
pp. 858-866

Flooding generally poses a threat to terrestrial plants, but wetland species display adaptations that prevent damage by the adverse conditions imposed by floods. One of these adaptations – formation of adventitious roots that replace the original non-adapted root system – may be severely constrained if insufficient light or contact of leaves with the atmosphere is present during the flooding event. This results in significantly fewer adventitious roots growing out of the stem, and thus poor performance in these stressful conditions.

FP16369Contrasting oxygen dynamics in Limonium narbonense and Sarcocornia fruticosa during partial and complete submergence

Elisa Pellegrini, Dennis Konnerup, Anders Winkel, Valentino Casolo and Ole Pedersen
pp. 867-876

Halophytes represent extraordinary strategies of flooding tolerance, most of them poorly understood. Traits associated with internal tissue aeration are often essential to submergence tolerance but the present study shows that other traits may also be relevant in order to sustain growth under recurrent submergence. Understanding traits that confer flooding tolerance is important in times with global climate changes that worldwide are predicted to result in more frequent flooding events.

FP16401Leaf gas film retention during submergence of 14 cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum)

Dennis Konnerup, Anders Winkel, Max Herzog and Ole Pedersen
pp. 877-887

Some terrestrial plants, including wheat (Triticum aestivum), possess superhydrophobic leaf surfaces that retain a thin gas film when submerged. We tested gas film retention time of 14 different wheat cultivars and found that wheat could retain the gas films for a minimum of 2 days. We suggest that leaf gas film is a relevant trait to use as a selection criterion to improve the flood tolerance of crops that become temporarily submerged.

FP16395Flood tolerance of wheat – the importance of leaf gas films during complete submergence

Anders Winkel, Max Herzog, Dennis Konnerup, Anja Heidi Floytrup and Ole Pedersen
pp. 888-898

Climate changes result in more floods also in regions where the mean precipitation is predicted to decline. Dryland crops such as wheat and barley are particularly vulnerable to submergence stress. Here, we show that superhydrophobic leaf surfaces enhance survival of completely submerged wheat by formation of thin leaf gas films that helps wheat to ‘breathe’ under water.

FP17128No escape? Costs and benefits of leaf de-submergence in the pasture grass Chloris gayana under different flooding regimes

Gustavo G. Striker, Cecilia Casas, Xiaolin Kuang and Agustín A. Grimoldi
pp. 899-906

Elongation-induced leaf emergence (escape strategy) is hypothesised to be more beneficial under single long-term submergence than under repeated short-term submergence. We tested this idea in Chloris gayana Kunth. grass. We found that under a single 2-week submergence event, plants accumulated a 2.9-fold higher dry mass than when experiencing the same submergence duration in separate events along 1 week, validating our hypothesis.

FP17054Improvement of submergence tolerance in rice through efficient application of potassium under submergence-prone rainfed ecology of Indo-Gangetic Plain

Sharad Kumar Dwivedi, Santosh Kumar, Narayan Bhakta, Shishir Kant Singh, Karnena Koteswara Rao, Janki Sharan Mishra and Anil Kumar Singh
pp. 907-916

Potassium (K) is one of the limiting factors that influenced rice growth and yield in submergence prone soils. Here we show that application of K at a higher dose (40 kg K2O ha–1 (basal) + one foliar spray at 0.5% K at panicle initiation stage) was beneficial in improving rice survival and grain yield. This finding will aid in boosting rice productivity in submergence prone rainfed ecology of Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plain.

FP16376A calcineurin B-like protein participates in low oxygen signalling in rice

Viet The Ho, Anh Nguyet Tran, Francesco Cardarelli, Pierdomenico Perata and Chiara Pucciariello
pp. 917-928

Rice seeds are able to germinate under water, also thanks to their ability to produce α-amylase under O2 shortage, thus allowing starch degradation. Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinase 15 (CIPK15) was previously identified as a positive regulator of α-amylase induction during anaerobic germination. In this study, we describe calcineurin B-like proteins 4 (CBL4) as a CIPK15 partner under low O2.

FP16355Metabolomics analysis of postphotosynthetic effects of gaseous O2 on primary metabolism in illuminated leaves

Cyril Abadie, Sophie Blanchet, Adam Carroll and Guillaume Tcherkez
pp. 929-940

Leaf gas exchange is commonly manipulated using low O2 to suppress photorespiration but the detailed effects of this condition on leaf metabolism have often been disregarded. In this study, we used metabolomics to show metabolic alterations typical of a hypoxic response and that the aspartate pathway, including methionine synthesis, is sensitive to the O2 mole fraction. These results provide evidence that, contrary to common belief, leaf catabolism and biosyntheses are sensitive to gaseous conditions.

FP16385Plant ionic relation and whole-plant physiological responses to waterlogging, salinity and their combination in barley

Zhinous Falakboland, Meixue Zhou, Fanrong Zeng, Ali Kiani-Pouya, Lana Shabala and Sergey Shabala
pp. 941-953

This work investigated physiological mechanisms conferring barley adaptation to combined waterlogging and salinity stress. Plants exposed to combined stress showed a negative correlation between shoot Na+ accumulation and the extent of salinity damage. Overall, the reported results indicated that K+ reduction in the plants but not stress-induced Na+ accumulation in the shoot was the most critical feature determining the overall plant performance under combined stress conditions.

Online Early

The peer-reviewed and edited version of record published online before inclusion in an issue


It is uncertain how elevated CO2 will affect photosynthesis during extreme events. Seven genotypes of Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. camaldulensis were grown in 400 or 640 parts per million CO2, and photosynthetic electron transport, stomatal conductance and net CO2 uptake were measured before, during and after a 4-day heatwave. The correlations between climate of origin and physiological responses depend on growth CO2, which makes it difficult to predict species responses to episodic aspects of climate change.

Published online 17 August 2017

FP17032Light inhibition of foliar respiration in response to soil water availability and seasonal changes in temperature in Mediterranean holm oak (Quercus ilex) forest

Matthew H. Turnbull, Romà Ogaya, Adrià Barbeta, Josep Peñuelas, Joana Zaragoza-Castells, Owen K. Atkin, Fernando Valladares, Teresa E. Gimeno, Beatriz Pías and Kevin L. Griffin
 

Leaf respiration is an integral component of plant growth and the global carbon cycle, and it is typically lower during the day than at night. We investigated leaf respiration in Mediterranean holm oak woodland, and found that light inhibition was not strongly related to changes in soil water content or ambient temperature. The findings have implications for predictive models that seek to calculate plant carbon balance.

Published online 15 August 2017

FP16436Roles played by invertase and gene expression in the development of the horn-shaped gall on leaves of Rhus chinensis

Zhen-Yuan Ruan, Xiao-Ming Chen, Pu Yang and Bing-Yi Wang
 

Horn-shaped gall is of great value in food, medicine and the industrial field, so the control of its formation will be helpful to increase the products. Vacuolar invertase is related to the rapid expansion of the galls, but ionically bound cell wall invertase is involved in the rapid growth of tissues. This might also be found in other kinds of galls.

Published online 15 August 2017

FP17096Variation in photosynthetic traits related to access to water in semiarid Australian woody species

Rachael H. Nolan, Tonantzin Tarin, Kendal A. Fairweather, James Cleverly and Derek Eamus
 

Soil water availability is a key factor limiting rates of carbon assimilation in plants. However, we found that as water availability declined, investment in foliar nitrogen, photosynthetic capacity and intrinsic water-use efficiency increased across eight co-occurring tree species in semiarid Australia. We conclude that differential access to water is an important factor driving variability of traits related to carbon gain.

Published online 15 August 2017

FP17079Divergence in plant water-use strategies in semiarid woody species

Rachael H. Nolan, Kendal A. Fairweather, Tonantzin Tarin, Nadia S. Santini, James Cleverly, Ralph Faux and Derek Eamus
 

The stable co-existence of a diversity of plant species within a single biome is possible if the species access different resources. In semiarid Australia we found that co-occurring tree species had differing access to water, resulting in multiple plant water-use strategies in this water-limited environment. These differing strategies have important implications for the survival of these species under drought.

Published online 11 August 2017

FP16429Different water relations between flowering and leaf periods: a case study in flower-before-leaf-emergence Magnolia species

Hui Liu, Qiu-Yuan Xu, Marjorie R. Lundgren and Qing Ye
 

The mechanism by which flowers regulate their function and structure to maintain water balance is unclear. We found that flowers of two Magnolia species consumed less than half the water that leaves did, and explored different hydraulic strategies in flowers and leaves to sustain hydraulic safety. This study contributes new knowledge to the field of floral hydraulics.

Published online 09 August 2017

FP17098Croton blanchetianus modulates its morphophysiological responses to tolerate drought in a tropical dry forest

Keila R. Mendes, João A. A. Granja, Jean P. Ometto, Antônio C. D. Antonino, Rômulo S. C. Menezes, Eugênia C. Pereira and Marcelo F. Pompelli
 

Understanding morphophysiological variations in plant leaf traits on tropical dry forests is essential for studying global climate changes. We was investigated the effect of rainfall on the morphophysiological features of Croton blanchetianus. We argue that C. blanchetianus has a remarkable ability to adapt to global climate changes. Consequently, this species may be important in reforestation programs.


Rice is a staple food in many countries and local production is carried out under unfavourable conditions, so effective and affordable alternatives to enhance local production are mandatory to palliate hunger. The underlying hypothesis is that certain beneficial bacterial strains can boost plant’s adaptive metabolism to overcome environmental limitations, so this study aimed to identify bacterial genes involved in beneficial effects on plants by creating random mutants of an effective Pseudomonas strain by evaluating loss of protection against salt stress in rice, and growth of tomato. Mutants were mapped and putative responsible genes sequenced. This study reveals the effectiveness of beneficial bacteria on two relevant crops, phylogenetically distant, so it appears as a challenging alternative to meet food security.

Published online 31 July 2017

FP17110The temperature response of leaf dark respiration in 15 provenances of Eucalyptus grandis grown in ambient and elevated CO2

Michael J. Aspinwall, Vinod K. Jacob, Chris J. Blackman, Renee A. Smith, Mark G. Tjoelker and David T. Tissue
 

Leaf respiration (R) is an important determinant of tree and forest function, yet the impacts of rising atmospheric CO2 on leaf R remain poorly understood. We found that leaf respiration is largely unaffected by elevated CO2, and is relatively similar across seedlings of geographically and climatically diverse populations of Eucalyptus grandis. We conclude that elevated CO2 is unlikely to change leaf R in E. grandis.


Although Ca2+ is transported by Ca2+-ATPase into root nodule cell symbiosomes, surprisingly little is known on its role in their functioning. An attempt to solve the problem was made using the data on calcium behaviour in prokaryotes and endosymbiosis role in its signalling. The data outlined indicate that Ca2+ signalling in bacteroids is putatively its key functional role in symbiosomes.


A new approach to monitoring leaf photosynthesis in situ using 30 ms chlorophyll fluorescence transients at ~ 2 s intervals at distances up to 2 m is described. By monitoring fluorescence with near full reduction of QA (the primary quinone acceptor of PSII) these transients deliver parameters not directly available from other methods (relative functional absorption cross section of photosystem II, rates of intersystem electron transport and relative oxidation state the plastoquinone (PQ) pool). These permit non-intrusive evaluation of brief sun flecks in shade canopies whereas calibration against traditional PAM methods is obtained in longer protocols achieving full reduction of PQ.


Ozone has been proposed as a convenient elicitor against pathogens. We hypothesised that ozone treatment may elicit defence against Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) by inducing ROS signalling or other defence routes in wheat. We found that ozone treatment was effective in diminishing Bgt invasion in the susceptible cultivar, which was plausibly related to the SA pathway.

Published online 14 July 2017

FP16406Solute transport within grape berries inferred from the paramagnetic properties of manganese

Ryan J. Dean, Ryan J. Dean, Simon J. Clarke, Simon J. Clarke, Suzy Y. Rogiers, Suzy Y. Rogiers, Timothy Stait-Gardner, Timothy Stait-Gardner, William S. Price and William S. Price
 

Mineral transport in plants is typically studied using chemical tracer compounds. However, after grape berries begin to ripen, xylem mobile tracers are often constrained to the vasculature near the proximal end. Here we show it is possible to observe the transport of important minerals, such as Mn, using magnetic resonance imaging.

Published online 14 July 2017

FP17121PSI becomes more tolerant to fluoranthene through the initiation of cyclic electron flow

Rupal Singh Tomar and Anjana Jajoo
 

Floranthene (FLT), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) poses a potential ecological risk to plants by damaging their photosynthetic machinery. It inhibits PSII while PSI protects itself from the damaging effects of FLT by initiating cyclic electron flow. This important information was provided using a very quick, noninvasive and simple technique of chlorophyll a fluorescence measurement.

Published online 14 July 2017

FP17113Phosphatidic acid binds to and regulates guanine nucleotide exchange factor 8 (GEF8) activity in Arabidopsis

Chunyan Cao, Peipei Wang, Hongdi Song, Wen Jing, Like Shen, Qun Zhang and Wenhua Zhang
 

Both phosphatidic acid (PA) and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) are essential signalling molecules in adaptive response to various external stresses. Here we show that PA binds specifically to GEF8, thus regulating the activity of small GTPase ROPs in Arabidopsis. Our findings identify a direct functional regulation of lipid-mediation of GEFs activity and small GTPase signalling in cells.

Published online 10 July 2017

FP17085Unravelling the plant signalling machinery: an update on the cellular and genetic basis of plant signal transduction

Vadim Demidchik, Frans Maathuis and Olga Voitsekhovskaja
 

Signalling is a central phenomenon in biology. It is crucial to all aspects of plant physiology including growth, development and interactions with the environment. Here, novel hypotheses and experimental data regarding signalling hubs, second messengers, programmed cell death and autophagy are presented from the Fourth Plant Signalling and Behaviour Symposium in Sankt Petersburg, Russia, June 2016).

Published online 04 July 2017

FP16410Physiological and biochemical responses of Festuca sinensis seedlings to temperature and soil moisture stress

Jian-Jun Wang, Wei-Hu Lin, Yan-Ting Zhao, Cheng Meng, An-Wei Ma, Long-Hai Xue, Yu Kuang and Pei Tian
 

Drought and cold are two major factors limiting the growth of cool-season grasses and cause declines in grassland and forage quality. This study investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of one native grass species – Festuca sinensis – in China to temperature and water stress. Our results showed this grass could adapt to certain changes in the ecological environment by regulating their physiological and biochemical reactions.

Published online 29 June 2017

FP17116Myotubularins, PtdIns5P, and ROS in ABA-mediated stomatal movements in dehydrated Arabidopsis seedlings

Akanksha Nagpal, Ammar Hassan, Ivan Ndamukong, Zoya Avramova and František Baluška
 

Arabidopsis myotubularins AtMTM1 and AtMTM2 control stomata movements via reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis under drought stress. Acting as a secondary messenger in the ABA-induced ROS production in guard cells, PtdIns5P emerges as an evolutionarily conserved signalling molecule downstream of AtMTMs calibrating cellular ROS levels under stress. AtMTM1 and AtMTM2 activities balance ABA-induced ROS and cellular homeostasis under dehydration stress.

Published online 23 June 2017

FP17003Melatonin alleviates aluminium toxicity through modulating antioxidative enzymes and enhancing organic acid anion exudation in soybean

Jiarong Zhang, Bingjie Zeng, Yawen Mao, Xiangying Kong, Xinxun Wang, Ye Yang, Jie Zhang, Jin Xu, Zed Rengel and Qi Chen
 

Aluminium (Al) toxicity is a significant problem for plant growth and production on acidic soils, which cover over 40% of the world’s arable land. In this study, we investigated the role of melatonin in soybean resistance to Al toxicity. The application of melatonin alleviated Al toxicity through enhancement of antioxidant enzymes activities and organic acid anions exudation.

Published online 17 May 2017

FP16418The levels of peroxisomal catalase protein and activity modulate the onset of cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells via reactive oxygen species levels and autophagy

Elena V. Tyutereva, Ksenia S. Dobryakova, Andreas Schiermeyer, Maria F. Shishova, Katharina Pawlowski, Vadim Demidchik, Sigrun Reumann and Olga V. Voitsekhovskaja
 

Peroxisomes balance the cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and therefore should modulate ROS-regulated programs like autophagy or cell death. We used tobacco suspension cultures to show that degradation of peroxisomes via autophagy was a prerequisite for cell death and depended on the levels of the major peroxisomal protein, catalase. This suggests a role of plant catalase in the regulation of peroxisome turnover and autophagic cell death.

Published online 19 April 2017

FP16339Electrical signalling in Nitellopsis obtusa: potential biomarkers of biologically active compounds

Vilma Kisnieriene, Indre Lapeikaite and Vilmantas Pupkis
 

The electrophysiological response pattern of Nitellopsis obtusa cell can be assessed to evaluate the effect of many biologically active compounds. We illustrate a variety of electrophysiological approaches for the investigations of electrical signaling after chemical treatment in vivo. The insights about the Characean model system are likely to hold for plants in general and even deepen the understanding of the plant evolution.

Published online 13 April 2017

FP16324Molecular insights into the functional role of nitric oxide (NO) as a signal for plant responses in chickpea

Parankusam Santisree, Pooja Bhatnagar-Mathur and Kiran K. Sharma
 

Although many studies established nitric oxide (NO) as a signaling molecule in plants, the identification of target molecules of NO has remained elusive due to the lack of in depth molecular studies. Our quantitative proteome analysis suggests the differential regulation of 248 proteins and dynamic regulation of metabolic pathways by exogenous NO donor in chickpea. This is the first report in legumes pointing at the potential candidates that attribute the reported functions of NO in plants.

Published online 29 March 2017

FP16379Photochemical activity changes accompanying the embryogenesis of pea (Pisum sativum) with yellow and green cotyledons

Galina Smolikova, Vladimir Kreslavski, Olga Shiroglazova, Tatiana Bilova, Elena Sharova, Andrej Frolov and Sergei Medvedev
 

We studied the dynamics of photochemical activity in seed coats and cotyledons during development of yellow- and green-seeded pea cultivars by using the pulse amplitude modulation fluorometric analysis. The fast transients of the chlorophyll a fluorescence revealed higher photochemical activity in the coats of yellow-seeded cultivar at the early- and middle cotyledon stages of seed development in comparison to those observed in the green-seeded ones. Photochemical activity in the cotyledons of both cultivars could not be any more detected at the late cotyledon stage. This process was triggered by dehydration of seed tissues.


Root growth is controlled by phytohormones, but what cellular processes are regulated and how it occurs is still an open question. Here it is shown that cytokinin affects root growth mainly through its effect on cell proliferation, and does not initiate the transition of cells to differentiation as previously thought. Cellular analysis performed could be applied for the analysis of how any plant hormone influences developmental processes in plant roots.

Published online 24 March 2017

FP16283Cyclosis-mediated long distance communications of chloroplasts in giant cells of Characeae

Anna V. Komarova, Vladimir S. Sukhov and Alexander A. Bulychev
 

Intracellular communications in plant cells of large dimensions rely primarily on cytoplasmic streaming, because diffusion is too slow for the transport on mm-scale distances. Illumination of a small cell spot at a various distances from the point of chlorophyll fluorescence measurements revealed the wave-like propagation of the fluorescence response along the cell length. The results show that the photosynthetic function of immobile chloroplasts under constant light can be affected by long-distance transmission of a photosynthetically active metabolite from the remote cell parts.


Understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant development constitutes an important field of investigations in the current era of plant biology research. Nitric oxide signalling regulates a variety of biochemical processes in plants. Present review provides an in-depth analysis of our current understanding on the subject, particularly with reference to plant growth under stress conditions.

Published online 22 March 2017

FP16384Melatonin in plant signalling and behaviour

Lauren A. E. Erland, Praveen K. Saxena and Susan J. Murch
 

Melatonin is an important hormone and signalling molecule in all forms of life including humans, plants and bacteria. Recent plant physiology and genomic experiments have described the redirection of plant growth and metabolism, and demonstrated a diversity of genes involved in response to melatonin, however, the exact metabolic cascades that translate melatonin signals into physiological responses is not fully understood. This review provides an overview of melatonin mediated signalling manifested as behaviours and its roles in basic and industrial research.

Published online 16 March 2017

FP16326Sunpatiens compact hot coral: memristors in flowers

Alexander G. Volkov and Eunice K. Nyasani
 

Memristors, or resistors with memory, exist in vivo as components of plasma membranes in plants, fruits, roots and seeds. Authors found memristors in an androecium, spur, petals and pedicel in Sunpatiens flowers. The discovery of memristors in Sunpatiens (Impatiens spp.) creates a new direction in the modelling and understanding of electrophysiological phenomena and memory elements in flowers.

Published online 14 March 2017

FP16348Phloem fibres as motors of gravitropic behaviour of flax plants: level of transcriptome

Oleg Gorshkov, Natalia Mokshina, Nadezda Ibragimova, Marina Ageeva, Natalia Gogoleva and Tatyana Gorshkova
 

Plant fibres with a tertiary cell wall (G-layer) may function as plant ‘muscles’. Large-scale transcriptome profiling of isolated flax phloem fibres permitted to identify the major players and regulatory elements that operate during graviresponce specifically in the fibres of the pulling stem side. The suggested mechanisms of phloem fibre involvement in tropisms may considerably renew the concept of herbaceous plant behaviour upon gravistimulation.

Published online 14 March 2017

FP16318Plant ion channels and transporters in herbivory-induced signalling

Shuitian Luo, Xiao Zhang, Jinfei Wang, Chunyang Jiao, Yingying Chen and Yingbai Shen
 

Clarifying herbivory-induced plant cellular signalling is a critical step to push the research of plant-herbivore interaction forward. We review the role of ion channels/transporters in modulating herbivory-induced early signalling events and rapid systemic signal transmission in plants. This work provides a comprehensive source of information about plant defensive strategies upon attack.

Published online 14 March 2017

FP16292Studies of cytokinin receptor–phosphotransmitter interaction provide evidences for the initiation of cytokinin signalling in the endoplasmic reticulum

Sergey N. Lomin, Yulia A. Myakushina, Dmitry V. Arkhipov, Olga G. Leonova, Vladimir I. Popenko, Thomas Schmülling and Georgy A. Romanov
 

Cytokinin is an important plant hormone and its mode of action has been extensively studied; however, to date, the subcellular localisation of cytokinin perception and signal transduction remains a matter of debate. This study describes cytokinin receptor–phosphotransmitter interaction and its subcellular localisation in living plant cells and it provides several experimental evidences for receptor activity at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. It is concluded that intracellular cytokinins within the ER lumen may play an important role in cytokinin signalling, at least in some cell types.

Published online 07 March 2017

FP16377Cell differentiation in nitrogen-fixing nodules hosting symbiosomes

Anna V. Tsyganova, Anna B. Kitaeva and Viktor E. Tsyganov
 

Rhizobium bacteria, which live within the root nodules of legumes, allow plants to capture nitrogen gas from the atmosphere and use it for their own growth. Central to this symbiosis is an intracellular structure, called the symbiosome, in which nitrogen-fixing bacterial cells exchange components with the host cells that harbor them. Recent research on the differentiation of symbiosomes and of the infected cells that accommodate them has helped to decipher some general molecular mechanisms of cell differentiation.

Published online 03 March 2017

FP16342Parameters of electrical signals and photosynthetic responses induced by them in pea seedlings depend on the nature of stimulus

Vladimir Vodeneev, Maxim Mudrilov, Elena Akinchits, Irina Balalaeva and Vladimir Sukhov
 

Plants, like animals, produce electrical signals in response to various external influences. In this study we raised a question whether the electrical signals transmit information about the nature of the stimulus, and found out that different stimuli induce signals of varied parameters. The obtained results explain how plants adapt to changing environment.

Published online 28 February 2017

FP16380The role of ion disequilibrium in induction of root cell death and autophagy by environmental stresses

Vadim Demidchik, Elena V. Tyutereva and Olga V. Voitsekhovskaja
 

Environmental stresses are main causes for low agricultural productivity. At the cellular level, stresses induce generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ion disequilibrium, autophagy and programmed cell death (PCD). Here we propose that these processes interact and that ROS and ion disequilibrium are triggers of autophagy and PCD. Overall, presented data contribute to understanding plant stress physiology.


Transient elevation of cytosolic Ca2+, also referred as a Ca2+signal, is as central phenomenon of plant signalling. Plants evolved sophisticated systems to initiate, amplify and terminate Ca2+ signals. Structure and properties of these systems, including Ca2+-permeable ion channels, Ca2+-ATPases, Ca2+/H+ exchangers and ‘ROS-Ca2+ hub’ are discussed here. They provide a fine-tuned mechanism for encoding diverse external and internal stimuli.

Published online 13 February 2017

FP16347Spatial distribution of organelles in leaf cells and soybean root nodules revealed by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy

Brandon C. Reagan, Paul J. -Y. Kim, Preston D. Perry, John R. Dunlap and Tessa M. Burch-Smith
 

Focussed ion bean scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) is a technique that can be used to generate 3D renderings of cells and their contents. Although FIB-SEM has been regularly used to investigate animal cells and tissues, it has rarely been deployed to study plant structures. Here we demonstrate that FIB-SEM can easily be used to study plant samples and have discovered previously unknown arrangements of organelles and membranes in those samples.

Published online 03 February 2017

FP16322Formation mechanisms of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide in chloroplasts, and factors determining the signalling by hydrogen peroxide

Boris N. Ivanov, Maria M. Borisova-Mubarakshina and Marina A. Kozuleva
 

Photosynthetic electron transport chain is not only source of ATP and NADPH for photosynthesis; it is a sensor, informing adaptation systems of plant about environmental changes. An important transmitter of this information is hydrogen peroxide whose mechanisms of formation are presented, laying special emphasis on the formation outside and within thylakoid membrane. It is discussed, that the formation place can ensure definite signal about the specific environmental change.

Published online 11 January 2017

FP16321Arabidopsis thaliana phytaspase: identification and peculiar properties

Nina V. Chichkova, Raisa A. Galiullina, Larisa V. Mochalova, Svetlana V. Trusova, Zulfazli M. Sobri, Patrick Gallois and Andrey B. Vartapetian
 

Although plant proteases of the phytaspase family are important contributors to stress-induced plant cell death, phytaspase of a classical model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has escaped identification thus far. We identified the Arabidopsis phytaspase-encoding gene and characterised the recombinant enzyme. Substrate specificity and properties of the Arabidopsis phytaspase display both important similarities with and distinctions from the already characterised phytaspases.

Published online 20 December 2016

FP16337cGMP signalling in plants: from enigma to main stream

Jean-Charles Isner and Frans J. M. Maathuis
 

Cyclic GMP (cGMP) signalling in plants is crucial for many physiological processes. Recent analytical and genomic developments now allow detailed studies into the biochemistry and physiological role of cGMP in plants, and the latest findings are reviewed in this article.

Published online 16 December 2016

FP16338Two-pore cation (TPC) channel: not a shorthanded one

Igor Pottosin and Oxana Dobrovinskaya
 

Large conductance SV/TPC1 channels are ubiquitously and abundantly expressed in the vacuolar membranes of higher plants. They are unique established Ca2+-permeable channels in vacuoles, but their activity is strongly negatively controlled, so that they were believed to be inactive or to act only locally. Recent evidence suggests the key role of SV/TPC1 channels in the long-distance Ca2+ signalling.


Plants adapt to environmental light conditions with the use of the sophisticated phytochrome system. In this work, polymorphism of its major component – phytochrome A– was investigated. With the use of transgenic Arabidopsis and fluorescence technique, it was shown that two molecular types of the photoreceptor differ by the state of phosphorylation and their existence accounts for its complex functions.

Published online 09 November 2016

FP16242Rapid changes in root HvPIP2;2 aquaporins abundance and ABA concentration are required to enhance root hydraulic conductivity and maintain leaf water potential in response to increased evaporative demand

Dmitry S. Veselov, Dmitry S. Veselov, Guzel V. Sharipova, Guzel V. Sharipova, Stanislav Yu. Veselov, Stanislav Yu. Veselov, Ian C. Dodd, Ian C. Dodd, Igor Ivanov, Igor Ivanov, Guzel R. Kudoyarova and Guzel R. Kudoyarova
 

The ABA-deficient barley mutant Az34 and wild type (WT) were exposed to air warming. Although transpiration rate of both genotypes increased, leaf water potential decreased in the mutant but was maintained in WT plants. Only WT plants showed increased root ABA accumulation, which increased root hydraulic conductivity and aquaporin abundance, which seems important in maintaining leaf hydration.

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