Functional Plant Biology
Volume 44 Number 4 2017
By sensing changes in the local environment, plants adapt their growth patterns to maximise reproductive success. This review summarises our understanding of how plants detect chemical compounds released into the soil during fire events. This field of research has led to the discovery of an evolutionarily conserved signalling system that has implications for agriculturally relevant aspects of plant development.
FP16266Active defence by an Australian native host, Lomandra longifolia, provides resistance against Phytophthora cinnamomi
The plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi poses a major threat to a wide range of host plants. This study examined resistance in Lomandra longifolia (an Australian native plant) and found high levels of resistance to infection, along with the identification of several resistant-related components. Understanding L. longifolia’s resistance to the pathogen may help develop strategies for protection of more susceptible species.
FP16272Evaluation of root porosity and radial oxygen loss of disomic addition lines of Hordeum marinum in wheat
Hordeum marinum is a waterlogging-tolerant wild relative of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and has been hybridised with wheat to produce amphiploids containing the genomes from both species. We found that although an amphiploid had improved root aeration traits compared with the wheat parent, the addition lines containing chromosome pairs did not have these traits of greater root porosity or a barrier to radial O2 loss. Thus, these root aeration traits were not expressed in any of the six of the seven possible chromosome addition lines, hampering efforts to use H. marinum as a donor of waterlogging tolerance to wheat.
It has been proposed that the densities at which veins and stomata are present in leaves are co-ordinated by epidermal cell expansion. However, we found that vein density is not causally linked to epidermal cell size. This suggests that adaptation favours synchronised changes to cell size in different leaf tissues to coordinate vein and stomatal density, and thus, maintain a balance between water supply and transpirational demand.
Sub-optimal environmental conditions for crops are called abiotic stress; cold is one of the main stresses for rice. In this study, the RNAseq technique was used to identify genes expressed in response to cold in rice germination. The results indicated that a large number of genes were expressed in the sensitive genotype and few genes in the tolerant genotype. We have identified possible genes that are responsible for cold tolerance in rice plants of the cold tolerant cultivar.
FP16258Nitrate increases ethylene production and aerenchyma formation in roots of lowland rice plants under water stress
It remains unclear how water stress affects ethylene production and aerenchyma formation in rice plant supply with different nitrogen forms. The results showed that nitrate nutrition increased ethylene production and aerenchyma formation in roots of lowland rice plants under water stress. We concluded that nitrogen source supply is involved in the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and function, especially under water stress.
FP16206Defence mechanisms associated with mycorrhiza-induced resistance in wheat against powdery mildew
Little is known about the biocontrol ability of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to protect plants against foliar fungal pathogens. We assessed the ability of Funneliformis mosseae to protect wheat against powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici. AMF treatment revealed a systemic resistance of wheat to B. graminis associated with a stimulation of plant defence responses and interpreted as mycorrhiza-induced resistance.
In this work we cloned a new gene ADF1 that severs actin filaments in apple pollen tubes. The aim of the work is to give references to understand the function of ADF generally in vitro and in vivo and the main discovery is ADF severs actin filaments. Finally, we fit the original images into the software Photoshop 6.0 for bigger pictures and use software Image J to produce the video clips.
FP16383The inhibition of photosynthesis under water deficit conditions is more severe in flecked than uniform irradiance in rice (Oryza sativa) plants
The effect of water deficit on photosynthesis in fluctuating irradiance is not well understood, although leaves within a canopy experience a highly variable light environment. This study was conducted by investigating steady-state and dynamic photosynthesis of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars grown under well-watered and water stress conditions. We found that the inhibition of photosynthesis under water deficit condition is more severe in flecked than steady-state irradiance.
The peer-reviewed and edited version of record published online before inclusion in an issue
This paper describes a new method to measure free Ca concentrations in plants’ extracellular matrix (the apoplast). Extra Ca supply during cultivation increases Ca concentration both in the apoplast and intracellularly, and acidifies the apoplastic pH, which improves ion homeostasis. This may be a further explanation for the favourable effect of Ca for cell expansion and plant growth under salinity.
In contrast to their ancestors, vascular plants do not have a Na+ pump. The lack of a Na+ pump might give a hint as to why vascular plants are so sensitive to salinity. In this minireview, we discuss the feasibility of introducing a Na+ pump to increase the salt tolerance of vascular plants.
FP16340Cytokinins regulate root growth through its action on meristematic cell proliferation but not on the transition to differentiation
Root growth is controlled by phytohormones, but what cellular processes are regulated and how it occurs is still an open question. Here it is shown that cytokinin affects root growth mainly through its effect on cell proliferation, and does not initiate the transition of cells to differentiation as previously thought. Cellular analysis performed could be applied for the analysis of how any plant hormone influences developmental processes in plant roots.
FP16294Genotypic water-deficit stress responses in durum wheat: association between physiological traits, microRNA regulatory modules and yield components
Pre-anthesis water-deficit stress causes detrimental effects on the production of crops such as durum wheat in rain-fed areas. In stress tolerant varieties, the regulation of microRNA160 and the mRNA that it targets, auxin response factors, are potentially associated with the unaffected leaf relative water content and chlorophyll content, and the co-ordinated control of stomatal aperture, which ultimately contribute to the maintenance of grain number and yield. Together, these findings suggest the importance of durum microRNA regulatory modules in water stress responses and provide useful information for improving stress tolerance in breeding.
Intracellular communications in plant cells of large dimensions rely primarily on cytoplasmic streaming, because diffusion is too slow for the transport on mm-scale distances. Illumination of a small cell spot at a various distances from the point of chlorophyll fluorescence measurements revealed the wave-like propagation of the fluorescence response along the cell length. The results show that the photosynthetic function of immobile chloroplasts under constant light can be affected by long-distance transmission of a photosynthetically active metabolite from the remote cell parts.
Some terrestrial plants, including wheat (Triticum aestivum), possess superhydrophobic leaf surfaces that retain a thin gas film when submerged. We tested gas film retention time of 14 different wheat cultivars and found that wheat could retain the gas films for a minimum of 2 days. We suggest that leaf gas film is a relevant trait to use as a selection criterion to improve the flood tolerance of crops that become temporarily submerged.
FP16279Molecular mechanisms accompanying nitric oxide signalling through tyrosine nitration and S-nitrosylation of proteins in plants
Understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant development constitutes an important field of investigations in the current era of plant biology research. Nitric oxide signalling regulates a variety of biochemical processes in plants. Present review provides an in-depth analysis of our current understanding on the subject, particularly with reference to plant growth under stress conditions.
Melatonin is an important hormone and signalling molecule in all forms of life including humans, plants and bacteria. Recent plant physiology and genomic experiments have described the redirection of plant growth and metabolism, and demonstrated a diversity of genes involved in response to melatonin, however, the exact metabolic cascades that translate melatonin signals into physiological responses is not fully understood. This review provides an overview of melatonin mediated signalling manifested as behaviours and its roles in basic and industrial research.
The timing of seed germination and flowering influences the fitness of plants in seasonal environments. Two major flowering-time genes – FLOWERING LOCUS C and FRIGIDA – were shown to influence the propensity of seeds to germinate, both immediately after dispersal and after dormancy breakage and re-induction; these genetic differences in dormancy were manifest as genetic differences in temperature-dependent germination. Therefore, flowering and germination share some genetic basis, potentially coordinating or constraining how plants respond to seasonal cues across their life cycle.
FP16262Overgrowth (Della) mutants of wheat: development, growth and yield of intragenic suppressors of the Rht-B1c dwarfing gene
The increased wheat yields that occurred during the Green Revolution were made possible by incorporating semidwarfing alleles of the wheat Della gene into new wheat varieties. These alleles are still in widespread use in current wheat varieties, but we have now isolated many new mutants of this gene and characterised their effects on growth, grain dormancy and yield. The results provide insight into regulation of growth by the DELLA protein and indicate particular alleles of potential value in wheat breeding.
Memristors, or resistors with memory, exist in vivo as components of plasma membranes in plants, fruits, roots and seeds. Authors found memristors in an androecium, spur, petals and pedicel in Sunpatiens flowers. The discovery of memristors in Sunpatiens (Impatiens spp.) creates a new direction in the modelling and understanding of electrophysiological phenomena and memory elements in flowers.
Plant fibres with a tertiary cell wall (G-layer) may function as plant ‘muscles’. Large-scale transcriptome profiling of isolated flax phloem fibres permitted to identify the major players and regulatory elements that operate during graviresponce specifically in the fibres of the pulling stem side. The suggested mechanisms of phloem fibre involvement in tropisms may considerably renew the concept of herbaceous plant behaviour upon gravistimulation.
Clarifying herbivory-induced plant cellular signalling is a critical step to push the research of plant-herbivore interaction forward. We review the role of ion channels/transporters in modulating herbivory-induced early signalling events and rapid systemic signal transmission in plants. This work provides a comprehensive source of information about plant defensive strategies upon attack.
FP16292Studies of cytokinin receptor–phosphotransmitter interaction provide evidences for the initiation of cytokinin signalling in the endoplasmic reticulum
Cytokinin is an important plant hormone and its mode of action has been extensively studied; however, to date, the subcellular localisation of cytokinin perception and signal transduction remains a matter of debate. This study describes cytokinin receptor–phosphotransmitter interaction and its subcellular localisation in living plant cells and it provides several experimental evidences for receptor activity at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. It is concluded that intracellular cytokinins within the ER lumen may play an important role in cytokinin signalling, at least in some cell types.
Rhizobium bacteria, which live within the root nodules of legumes, allow plants to capture nitrogen gas from the atmosphere and use it for their own growth. Central to this symbiosis is an intracellular structure, called the symbiosome, in which nitrogen-fixing bacterial cells exchange components with the host cells that harbor them. Recent research on the differentiation of symbiosomes and of the infected cells that accommodate them has helped to decipher some general molecular mechanisms of cell differentiation.
FP16342Parameters of electrical signals and photosynthetic responses induced by them in pea seedlings depend on the nature of stimulus
Plants, like animals, produce electrical signals in response to various external influences. In this study we raised a question whether the electrical signals transmit information about the nature of the stimulus, and found out that different stimuli induce signals of varied parameters. The obtained results explain how plants adapt to changing environment.
FP16280In vivo inhibition of polyamine oxidase by a spermine analogue, MDL-72527, in tomato exposed to sublethal and lethal salt stress
The accumulation of free polyamines (PAs), the terminal oxidation of PAs and the production of H2O2 by diamine oxidases (DAOs) and polyamine oxidases (PAOs), and the expression of selective DAO and PAO genes, depends on the intensity of salt stress in tomato. H2O2 generated by DAO and PAO in cell walls under lethal salt stress induces cell death caused by irreversible loss of electrolytes from tissues. MDL-72527, a PAO inhibitor, impeded PAO-generated H2O2 production and H2O2-induced nitric oxide accumulation but increased electrolyte leakage from tissues, and thus does not increase salt tolerance.
FP16380The role of ion disequilibrium in induction of root cell death and autophagy by environmental stresses
Environmental stresses are main causes for low agricultural productivity. At the cellular level, stresses induce generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ion disequilibrium, autophagy and programmed cell death (PCD). Here we propose that these processes interact and that ROS and ion disequilibrium are triggers of autophagy and PCD. Overall, presented data contribute to understanding plant stress physiology.
FP16354Consequences of phloem pathway unloading/reloading on equilibrium flows between source and sink: a modelling approach
It is now accepted that there is continuous carbohydrate unloading and reloading along the entire phloem pathway linking sources and sinks. In what way this affects solute concentration and hydrostatic pressure along the pathway is unknown, and at present this is inaccessible to measurement. Hence modelling of this flow is the only route available. In this paper we use a detailed mechanistic model, able to incorporate lateral flows, to determine the effect of phloem pathway unloading/reloading. With adequate reloading, our calculations indicate that this has no overall effect on equilibrium flows, but has a large effect if unloading is not matched by adequate reloading.
FP16420Mechanisms of cytosolic calcium elevation in plants: the role of ion channels, calcium extrusion systems and NADPH oxidase-mediated ‘ROS-Ca2+ Hub
Transient elevation of cytosolic Ca2+, also referred as a Ca2+signal, is as central phenomenon of plant signalling. Plants evolved sophisticated systems to initiate, amplify and terminate Ca2+ signals. Structure and properties of these systems, including Ca2+-permeable ion channels, Ca2+-ATPases, Ca2+/H+ exchangers and ‘ROS-Ca2+ hub’ are discussed here. They provide a fine-tuned mechanism for encoding diverse external and internal stimuli.
FP16347Spatial distribution of organelles in leaf cells and soybean root nodules revealed by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy
Focussed ion bean scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) is a technique that can be used to generate 3D renderings of cells and their contents. Although FIB-SEM has been regularly used to investigate animal cells and tissues, it has rarely been deployed to study plant structures. Here we demonstrate that FIB-SEM can easily be used to study plant samples and have discovered previously unknown arrangements of organelles and membranes in those samples.
FP16322Formation mechanisms of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide in chloroplasts, and factors determining the signalling by hydrogen peroxide
Photosynthetic electron transport chain is not only source of ATP and NADPH for photosynthesis; it is a sensor, informing adaptation systems of plant about environmental changes. An important transmitter of this information is hydrogen peroxide whose mechanisms of formation are presented, laying special emphasis on the formation outside and within thylakoid membrane. It is discussed, that the formation place can ensure definite signal about the specific environmental change.
Although plant proteases of the phytaspase family are important contributors to stress-induced plant cell death, phytaspase of a classical model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has escaped identification thus far. We identified the Arabidopsis phytaspase-encoding gene and characterised the recombinant enzyme. Substrate specificity and properties of the Arabidopsis phytaspase display both important similarities with and distinctions from the already characterised phytaspases.
Cyclic GMP (cGMP) signalling in plants is crucial for many physiological processes. Recent analytical and genomic developments now allow detailed studies into the biochemistry and physiological role of cGMP in plants, and the latest findings are reviewed in this article.
Large conductance SV/TPC1 channels are ubiquitously and abundantly expressed in the vacuolar membranes of higher plants. They are unique established Ca2+-permeable channels in vacuoles, but their activity is strongly negatively controlled, so that they were believed to be inactive or to act only locally. Recent evidence suggests the key role of SV/TPC1 channels in the long-distance Ca2+ signalling.
FP16261Two native types of phytochrome A, phyAʹ and phyAʺ, differ by the state of phosphorylation at the N-terminus as revealed by fluorescence investigations of the Ser/Ala mutant of rice phyA expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis
Plants adapt to environmental light conditions with the use of the sophisticated phytochrome system. In this work, polymorphism of its major component – phytochrome A– was investigated. With the use of transgenic Arabidopsis and fluorescence technique, it was shown that two molecular types of the photoreceptor differ by the state of phosphorylation and their existence accounts for its complex functions.
FP16242Rapid changes in root HvPIP2;2 aquaporins abundance and ABA concentration are required to enhance root hydraulic conductivity and maintain leaf water potential in response to increased evaporative demand
The ABA-deficient barley mutant Az34 and wild type (WT) were exposed to air warming. Although transpiration rate of both genotypes increased, leaf water potential decreased in the mutant but was maintained in WT plants. Only WT plants showed increased root ABA accumulation, which increased root hydraulic conductivity and aquaporin abundance, which seems important in maintaining leaf hydration.
These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.
Combined effects of soil salinity and high temperature on photosynthesis and growth of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).
Changes in leaf stomatal conductance, petiole hydraulics and vessel morphology in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chasselas) under different light and irrigation regimes
Metabolomics analysis of post-photosynthetic effects of gaseous O2 on primary metabolism in illuminated leaves
Histone modifications at the grapevine VvOMT3 locus, which encodes an enzyme responsible for methoxypyrazine production in the berry.
Molecular insights into the functional role of Nitric Oxide (NO) as a signal for plant responses in chickpea
Endosperm-specific OsPYL8 and OsPYL9 act as positive regulators of the ABA signaling pathway in rice seed germination
Evaluation and application of a targeted SPE-LC-MS method for quantifying plant hormones and phenolics in Arabidopsis
Morpho-physiological responses to dehydration stress of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue genotypes.
On the induction of injury in tomato under continuous light: Circadian asynchrony as the main triggering factor
Photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2 concentration in a sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) crop under Mediterranean greenhouse conditions. Influence of the nitrogen source and salinity.
Use of multicolour fluorescence imaging for diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infection on zucchini by implementing machine learning
Ð hotochemical activity changes accompanying the embryogenesis of pea (Pisum sativum L.) with yellow and green cotyledons
Plants in constrained canopy micro-swards compensate for decreased root biomass and soil exploration with increased amounts of rhizosphere carboxylates.
Anatomical and biochemical characterisation of a barrier to radial O2 loss in adventitious roots of two contrasting Hordeum marinum accessions
Genotypic water-deficit stress responses in durum wheat: association between physiological traits, microRNA regulatory modules and yield components
Cytokinins regulate root growth through its action on meristematic cells proliferation but not on the transition to differentiation
The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads in the last 60 days from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website. Usage statistics are updated daily.
Functional Plant Biology 39 (11)Hendrik Poorter, Fabio Fiorani, Mark Stitt, Uli Schurr, Alex Finck, Yves Gibon, Björn Usadel, Rana Munns, Owen K. Atkin, François Tardieu, Thijs L. Pons
Functional Plant Biology 15 (2)TJ Givnish
Functional Plant Biology 39 (11)Hendrik Poorter, Jonas Bühler, Dagmar van Dusschoten, José Climent, Johannes A. Postma
Functional Plant Biology 30 (3)Manuela M. Chaves, João P. Maroco, João S. Pereira
Functional Plant Biology 17 (3)MK Smith, RA Drew
Functional Plant Biology 44 (1)Nicolas Virlet, Kasra Sabermanesh, Pouria Sadeghi-Tehran, Malcolm J. Hawkesford
Effect of Leaf Position, Expansion and Age on Photosynthesis, Transpiration and Water Use Efficiency of CottonFunctional Plant Biology 7 (1)GA Constable, HM Rawson
Functional Plant Biology 22 (6)TJ Flowers, AR Yeo
Functional Plant Biology 10 (5)M Salim, MG Pitman
Functional Plant Biology 40 (9)Silke Ruppel, Philipp Franken, Katja Witzel
Functional Plant Biology 44 (4)Mark T. Waters
Functional Plant Biology 13 (1)R Munns, A Termaat
Importance of mechanisms and processes of the stabilisation of soil organic matter for modelling carbon turnoverFunctional Plant Biology 30 (2)Evelyn S. Krull, Jeffrey A. Baldock, Jan O. Skjemstad
Functional Plant Biology 33 (9)Ahmad M. Manschadi, John Christopher, Peter deVoil, Graeme L. Hammer
Functional Plant Biology 21 (6)K Denyer, CM Hylton, AM Smith
Functional Plant Biology 4 (4)M Bodson, RW King, LT Evans, G Bernier
The Relationship Between CO2 Transfer Conductance and Leaf Anatomy in Transgenic Tobacco With a Reduced Content of RubiscoFunctional Plant Biology 21 (4)JR Evans, SV Caemmerer, BA Setchell, GS Hudson
Effect of Water Stress on Stomatal Conductance and Leaf Water Relations of Leaves Along Current-Year Branches of PeachFunctional Plant Biology 16 (6)SL Steinberg, MJ Mcfarland, JC Miller
Functional Plant Biology 41 (1)Pedro Andrade-Sanchez, Michael A. Gore, John T. Heun, Kelly R. Thorp, A. Elizabete Carmo-Silva, Andrew N. French, Michael E. Salvucci, Jeffrey W. White
Functional Plant Biology 19 (5)JB Passioura, SC Fry