Functional Plant Biology Functional Plant Biology Society
Plant function and evolutionary biology
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Solute transport within grape berries inferred from the paramagnetic properties of manganese

Ryan J. Dean A , Simon J. Clarke B D , Suzy Y. Rogiers B C , Timothy Stait-Gardner A and William S. Price A B E
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Nanoscale Organisation and Dynamics Group, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia.

B National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia.

C National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia.

D Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, the University of Queensland, PO Box 102, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.

E Corresponding author. Email: w.price@uws.edu.au

Functional Plant Biology 44(10) 969-977 https://doi.org/10.1071/FP16406
Submitted: 13 November 2016  Accepted: 28 May 2017   Published: 14 July 2017

Abstract

Tracer compounds used for studying solute transport should ideally have identical functions and transport properties to the molecules they are designed to mimic. Unfortunately, the xylem-mobile tracer compounds currently used to infer solute transport mechanisms in botanical specimens such as the fruit of the grapevine, Vitis vinifera L., are typically xenobiotic and have difficulty exiting the xylem during berry ripening. Here it is demonstrated that the transport of paramagnetic Mn ions can be indirectly observed within the grape berry, using relaxation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Mn ions from a 10 mM Mn chloride solution were taken up into the grape berry via the pedicel and moved through the peripheral vasculature before exiting into surrounding pericarp tissue. Mn did not exit evenly across the berry, implying that the berry xylem influences which sites Mn exits the vasculature ‘downstream’ of the berry pedicel. It was also found that when the cellular membranes of pericarp tissues were disrupted, the distribution of Mn through the pericarp tissue became noticeably more homogenous. This indicates that the cellular membranes of extra-vascular cells affect the spatial distribution of Mn across the berry extra-vascular pericarp tissue upon exiting the grape berry vasculature.

Additional keywords: extra-vascular transport, manganese, paramagnetically enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, xylem tracer.


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