Functional Plant Biology Functional Plant Biology Society
Plant function and evolutionary biology
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Development of fruit cuticle in cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

Eva Domínguez A , Gloria López-Casado B C , Jesús Cuartero A and Antonio Heredia B D
+ Author Affiliations
- Author Affiliations

A Estación Experimental ‘La Mayora’ (CSIC) Algarrobo-Costa, E-29750 Málaga, Spain.

B Departamento de Biología Molecular y Bioquímica, Universidad de Málaga, E-29071 Málaga, Spain.

C Present address: Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

D Corresponding author. Email: heredia@uma.es

Functional Plant Biology 35(5) 403-411 https://doi.org/10.1071/FP08018
Submitted: 25 January 2008  Accepted: 6 May 2008   Published: 11 July 2008

Abstract

The cuticle of a plant plays an important role in many physiological events of fruit development and ripening. Despite this, little is known about cuticle formation and development. We include a detailed morphological study at the microscopic level of cuticle during fruit growth and ripening using tomato as a fruit model. In addition, a study of the differences in cuticle thickness and composition during development is included. The four genotypes studied in this work showed a similar timing of the main morphological events: initiation of epidermal differentiation, changes in the distribution of the lipid, pectin and cellulose material within the cuticle, appearance of pegs, beginning of cuticle invaginations, maximum thickness and loss of polysaccharidic material. Fruit growth, measured by fruit diameter, showed a positive correlation with the increase of cuticle thickness and the amount of cuticle and their cutin and polysaccharide components per fruit unit during development. By contrast, cuticle waxes showed a different behaviour. Two important characteristics of cuticle growth were observed during tomato fruit development. First, the amount of cuticle per surface area reached its maximum in the first 15 days after anthesis and remained more or less constant until ripening. Second, there was a significant loss of polysaccharidic material from the beginning of ripening (breaker stage) to full red ripe.

Additional keywords: cuticle components, cuticle growth, cutin, epidermis morphology, tomato fruit.


Acknowledgements

The authors thank Dr R. Fernández-Muñoz for critical reading the manuscript and Ana Rico for technical assistance. This work has been partially supported by grant AGL2006–12494 from Plan Nacional de I+D, Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Spain, Fundación Cajamar and Rijk Zwaan Iberica (Almería, Spain).


References


Baker EA , Bukovac MJ , Hunt GM ( 1982) Composition of tomato fruit cuticle as related to fruit growth and development. In ‘The plant cuticle’. (Eds DF Cutler, KL Alvin, CE Price) pp. 33–44. (Academic Press: London)

Bargel H, Koch K, Cerman Z, Neinhuis C (2006) Structure-function relationships of the plant cuticle and cuticular waxes – a smart material? Functional Plant Biology 33, 893–910.
CrossRef | open url image1

Bringe K, Schumacher CFA, Schmitz-Eiberger M, Steiner U, Oerke EC (2006) Ontogenetic variation in chemical and physical characteristics of adaxial apple leaf surfaces. Phytochemistry 67, 161–170.
CrossRef | PubMed | open url image1

Brummell DA (2006) Cell wall disassembly in ripening fruits. Functional Plant Biology 33, 103–119.
CrossRef | open url image1

Cánovas F ( 1995) Manejo del cultivo sin suelo. In ‘El Cultivo del Tomate’. (Ed. F Nuez) pp. 227–254. (Mundi-Prensa: Madrid)

Casado C, Heredia A (2001) Ultrastructure of the cuticle during growth of the grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.). Physiologia Plantarum 111, 220–224.
CrossRef | open url image1

Considine JA, Knox RB (1979) Development and histochemistry of the cells, cell walls, and cuticle of the dermal system of fruit of the grape Vitis vinifera L. Protoplasma 99, 347–365.
CrossRef | open url image1

Gillaspy G, Ben-David HH, Gruissem W (1993) Fruits: a developmental perspective. The Plant Cell 5, 1439–1451.
CrossRef | PubMed | open url image1

Heredia A (2003) Biophysical and biochemical characteristics of cutin, a plant barrier biopolymer. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1620, 1–7.
PubMed |
open url image1

Higashi K, Hosoya K, Ezura H (1999) Histological analysis of fruit development between two melon (Cucumis melo L. reticulatus) genotypes setting a different size in fruit. Journal of Experimental Botany 50, 1593–1597.
CrossRef | open url image1

Ho LC , Hewitt JD ( 1986) Fruit development. In ‘The tomato crop’. (Eds JG Atherton, J Rudich) pp. 201–239. (Chapman and Hall: London)

Jeffree C ( 2006) The fine structure of the plant cuticle. In ‘Biology of the plant cuticle’. (Eds M Riederer, C Müller) pp. 11–125. (Blackwell Publishing: Oxford)

Jensen WA ( 1962) ‘Botanical histochemistry.’ (WH Freeman & Co: San Francisco)

Leide J, Hildebrandt U, Reußing K, Riederer M, Vogg G (2007) The developmental pattern of tomato fruit wax accumulation and its impact on cuticular barrier properties: effects of a deficiency in a β-ketoacyl-CoAA synthase (LeCER6). Plant Physiology 144, 1667–1679.
CrossRef | PubMed | open url image1

López-Casado G (2006) Biomecánica de la epidermis y la cutícula del fruto de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) y su relación con el agrietado. PhD Thesis, Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, Spain.

Luque P, Heredia A (1994) Glassy state in plant cuticles during growth. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C 49, 273–275. open url image1

Luza JG, van Gorsel R, Polito VS, Kader AA (1992) Chilling injury in peaches: a cytochemical and ultrastructural cell wall study. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 117, 114–118. open url image1

Mapelli S, Frova C, Torti GG, Soressi MBG (1978) Relationship between set, development and activities of growth regulators in tomato fruits. Plant & Cell Physiology 19, 1281–1288. open url image1

Matas AJ, Cobb ED, Bartsch JA, Paolillo DJ, Niklas KJ (2004a) Biomechanics and anatomy of Lycopersicon esculentum fruit peels and enzyme-treated samples. American Journal of Botany 91, 352–360.
CrossRef | open url image1

Matas AJ, Cuartero J, Heredia A (2004b) Phase transitions in the biopolyester cutin isolated from tomato fruit cuticles. Thermochimica Acta 409, 165–168.
CrossRef | open url image1

Matas AJ, Lopez-Casado G, Cuartero J, Heredia A (2005) Relative humidity and temperature modify the mechanical properties of isolated tomato fruit cuticles. American Journal of Botany 92, 462–468.
CrossRef | open url image1

Orgell WH (1955) The isolation of plant cuticle with pectic enzymes. Plant Physiology 30, 78–80.
PubMed |
open url image1

Peschel S, Franke R, Schreiber L, Knoche M (2007) Composition of the cuticle of developing sweet cherry fruit. Phytochemistry 68, 1017–1025.
CrossRef | PubMed | open url image1

Petracek PD, Bukovac MJ (1995) Rheological properties of enzymatically isolated tomato fruit cuticle. Plant Physiology 109, 675–679.
PubMed |
open url image1

Riederer M, Schönherr J (1988) Development of plant cutin fine structure and cutin composition of Clivia miniata Reg. leaves. Planta 174, 127–138.
CrossRef | open url image1

Varga A , Bruinsma J (1986) Tomato. In ‘CRC Handbook of fruit set and development’. (Ed. SP Monselise) pp. 461–480. (CRC Press: Boca Raton)

Walton TJ (1990) Waxes, cutin and suberin. Methods in Plant Biochemistry 4, 105–158. open url image1

Yamada Y, Wittwer SH, Bukovac MJ (1964) Penetration of organic compounds through isolated cuticles with special reference to urea. Plant Physiology 39, R11. open url image1








Rent Article (via Deepdyve) Export Citation Cited By (16)