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Protocols in ecological and environmental plant physiology


Functional Plant Biology publishes new and significant information on the functional biology of plants at all scales from the molecular through whole plant to community. More

Editor-in-Chief: Sergey Shabala


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Published online 12 January 2015
Ethylene is involved in high air humidity promoted stomatal opening of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) leaves 
Louise E. Arve and Sissel Torre

Stomata movements are regulated by air humidity. The aim of this work was to study the role of ethylene and abscisic acid in air humidity stomatal responses. We show that both ethylene production and sensitivity play a role in high air humidity promoted stomatal opening and that high level of abscisic acid can inhibit the opening. The results indicate an interaction between ethylene and abscisic acid and provide novel insight into the role of plant hormones in air humidity regulated stomatal movements.

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Published online 24 December 2014
Isolation and functional characterisation of CDPKs gene from Arachis hypogaea under salt stress 
Yan Li, Feng Fang, Feng Guo, Jing-Jing Meng, Xin-Guo Li, Guang-Min Xia and Shu-Bo Wan

Calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) is an important member of Ca2+-signal transduction pathway for plants to resist environmental stress. It was first time to clone peanut CDPK gene and to analyse its function. That over-expressing AhCDPK improved the resistance of tobacco to salt stress will be helpful to improve peanut salt resistance and to further expand its cultivation in saline-alkali soil by transgenic or agronomic measure.

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Published online 12 December 2014
The structure and activity of nodulation-suppressing CLE peptide hormones of legumes 
April H. Hastwell, Peter M. Gresshoff and Brett J. Ferguson

CLE peptides are critical regulators of plant development, and include members that control legume nodule numbers in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria. These peptides are essential for the host plant to maintain a balance between acquiring nitrogen and expending energy forming and maintaining nodules. The structure and function of all known nodulation-suppressing CLE peptides is the focus of this review.

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Published online 12 December 2014
The variability in the xylem architecture of grapevine petiole and its contribution to hydraulic differences 
Uri Hochberg, Asfaw Degu, Tanya Gendler, Aaron Fait and Shimon Rachmilevitch

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is known for its cultivar variability in response to deficit irrigation. A 3 year study, comparing Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon petioles anatomy, showed that Shiraz had larger vessels diameter that resulted in higher hydraulic conductivity and transpiration rates. These traits lead to lower water potentials and vulnerability to cavitation. Our results provide a link between xylem anatomy and plant performances.

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Published online 09 December 2014
Sufficient leaf transpiration and nonstructural carbohydrates are beneficial for high-temperature tolerance in three rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars and two nitrogen treatments 
Dongliang Xiong, Tingting Yu, Xiaoxia Ling, Shah Fahad, Shaobing Peng, Yong Li and Jianliang Huang

Extreme high temperature can threaten rice (Oryza sativa L.) production by decreasing its seed setting percentage; however, sufficient nitrogen can alleviate this detrimental effect. Heat-tolerant cultivars show high leaf transpiration and nonstructural carbohydrates, and sufficient nitrogen can improve them. This suggests that sufficient leaf transpiration and nonstructural carbohydrates are beneficial for high-temperature tolerance in three rice cultivars and two N treatments.

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Published online 09 December 2014
Plant hydraulic conductance adapts to shoot number but limits shoot vigour in grapevines 
Markus Keller, Laura S. Deyermond and Bhaskar R. Bondada

This study sought to provide a biophysical basis for the common observation that shoot vigour in grapevines declines as the number of shoots per plant increases. We found that the plant’s capacity to supply water to its canopy adapts to the shoot number; however, limited adaptation, rather than competition with fruit growth, may constrain shoot growth and fruit growth. These findings may be used to optimise cultural practices that balance shoot and fruit growth for maximum quality.

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Published online 04 December 2014
Intraspecific variation in leaf growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) under Australian Grain Free Air CO2 Enrichment (AGFACE): is it regulated through carbon and/or nitrogen supply? 
Chamindathee L. Thilakarathne, Sabine Tausz-Posch, Karen Cane, Robert M. Norton, Glenn J. Fitzgerald, Michael Tausz and Saman Seneweera

Increased plant growth and yield response to elevated [CO2] is closely associated with leaf area expansion. The main aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of leaf area expansion and its genetic plasticity. Our results suggest that carbon supplies to growing leaves are cultivar dependent, and well correlated with leaf area expansion and whole-plant growth.

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Published online 02 December 2014
Hydrogen peroxide promotes programmed cell death and salicylic acid accumulation during the induced production of sesquiterpenes in cultured cell suspensions of Aquilaria sinensis 
Juan Liu, Yanhong Xu, Zheng Zhang and Jianhe Wei

We investigated the formation of agarwood, a substance believed to have interesting medicinal properties and that is produced only by certain plants when they are responding to an injury or infection. We evaluated the effects of hydrogen peroxide on cells of the plant Aquilaria sinensis; as we expected, the plant cells responded to this damaging chemical with specific changes in gene expression and the production of compounds known to be linked with toxicity and programmed cell death. Our results indicate that exposure to a reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide, produces multiple cellular responses that culminate in an effective defensive reaction on the part of the plant (i.e. production of agarwood).

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Published online 02 December 2014
On the evaluation of methods for the recovery of plant root systems from X-ray computed tomography images 
Stefan Mairhofer, Craig Sturrock, Darren M. Wells, Malcolm J. Bennett, Sacha J. Mooney and Tony P. Pridmore

The evaluation of root system recovery methods for X-ray microcomputed tomography images is a challenging task. In this work, we aim to raise awareness of the evaluation problem and to propose experimental approaches that allow the performance of root extraction methods to be assessed. This should help users to better understand the strengths and limitations of each method and should allow a better comparison.

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Published online 27 November 2014
Linking osmotic adjustment and stomatal characteristics with salinity stress tolerance in contrasting barley accessions 
Min Zhu, Meixue Zhou, Lana Shabala and Sergey Shabala

Soil salinisation is a global issue that affects plant growth and limits agricultural production, and a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of salt tolerance is essential for breeding salt-tolerant genotypes. Our results indicate that higher stomatal density and a predominant use of inorganic osmolytes are critical for the osmotic adjustment when barley exposed to salinity stress. These findings offer breeders new phenotyping methods for screening salt-tolerant genotypes, and provide a new insight into mechanisms of salt tolerance in this species.

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Published online 26 November 2014
Water relations of an invasive halophyte (Spartina patens): osmoregulation and ionic effects on xylem hydraulics 
Valentino Casolo, Martina Tomasella, Valentina De Col, Enrico Braidot, Tadeja Savi and Andrea Nardini

Invasive plants pose serious risks for conservation of coastal habitats. Spartina patens revealed physiological mechanisms based on salt uptake and accumulation, and ability to control the capacity of the plant to transport water, thus allowing colonisation of both dunes and marshes. Studies are needed to investigate the eventual occurrence of similar mechanisms in native species outcompeted by alien ones.

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Published online 26 November 2014
Image-based estimation of oat panicle development using local texture patterns 
Roger Boyle, Fiona Corke and Catherine Howarth

High-throughput phenotyping facilities provide opportunities for plant development observation and monitoring on new scales, but also present new problems in automatic image analysis. This paper presents a solution to one such problem by automating the detection of flowering in oats. This demonstrates the applicability of state-of-the-art computer vision algorithms to phenotyping, which may well be of value in similar atlas-based measurement.

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Published online 26 November 2014
How different pruning severities alter shoot structure: a modelling approach in young ‘Nonpareil’ almond trees 
Claudia Negrón, Loreto Contador, Bruce D. Lampinen, Samuel G. Metcalf, Yann Guédon, Evelyne Costes and Theodore M. DeJong

Pruning clearly influences subsequent growth and structure of trees; however, systematic studies on shoot structural responses to pruning severity have been difficult due to shoot structural complexity. This research used a statistical modelling approach to characterise shoot structural responses to pruning severity in ‘Nonpareil’ almond trees. Shoot responses to pruning were relatively consistent and predictable among similar shoot types within pruning treatments while pruning severity increased shoot structural complexity.

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Published online 11 November 2014
Metabolomics deciphers quantitative resistance mechanisms in diploid potato clones against late blight 
Kalenahalli N. Yogendra, Ajjamada C. Kushalappa, Felipe Sarmiento, Ernesto Rodriguez and Teresa Mosquera

Potato production is threatened worldwide by late blight disease, which destroys crops and lays a heavy financial burden on producers. Diploid potatoes with high disease resistance were analysed for the first time to identify the resistance related metabolites and associated genes responsible for impeding the pathogen. Phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, fatty acids and alkaloids induced reinforcement of secondary cell walls deterring pathogen advancement, and the genes involved can be used in breeding following validation.

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Published online 10 November 2014
Seasonal changes in the photosynthetic response to CO2 and temperature in apple (Malus domestica cv. ‘Red Gala’) leaves during a growing season with a high temperature event 
Dennis H. Greer

Extreme summer temperatures are increasingly frequent and are known to cause a loss in crop productivity. The aim was to test the photosynthetic performance of economically important Malus domestica (apple) trees under these conditions and discovered that extreme heat compromised the photosynthetic process but recovery occurred when the temperatures subsided. These results provide a basis for comprehending the impact of climate change.

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Published online 05 November 2014
Automatic estimation of wheat grain morphometry from computed tomography data 
Harry Strange, Reyer Zwiggelaar, Craig Sturrock, Sacha J. Mooney and John H. Doonan

Accurate and non-invasive measures of wheat grain morphometry can have impact on improvements in milling yield. An automated approach is presented to extract such measures from wheat CT data. The results show significant differences in measures between two disparate strains of wheat.

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Published online 24 October 2014
Auxin-modulated root growth inhibition in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings with ammonium as the sole nitrogen source 
Huaiyu Yang, Jenny von der Fecht-Bartenbach, Ji?í Friml, Jan U. Lohmann, Benjamin Neuhäuser and Uwe Ludewig

Ammonium and NO3 are the major nitrogen sources of plants. Although NH4+ is preferred, plant growth is suppressed at higher concentrations. Here, the transcriptomes of seedlings grown on (NH4)2SO4, KNO3 or NH4NO3 were compared. A major difference in auxin-regulated genes was observed and the importance of auxin was confirmed using mutants in the auxin pathway.

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Published online 23 September 2014
Surface reconstruction of wheat leaf morphology from three-dimensional scanned data 
Daryl M. Kempthorne, Ian W. Turner, John A. Belward, Scott W. McCue, Mark Barry, Joseph Young, Gary J. Dorr, Jim Hanan and Jerzy A. Zabkiewicz

Realistic virtual models of leaf surfaces are important for several applications in plant sciences, such as simulating agrichemical spray droplet motion on the leaf surface. Although there are effective approaches for reconstructing leaf surface from 3D scanned data, complications arise when dealing with wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves, which tend to twist and bend. We present an algorithm that overcomes this topological difficulty, allowing significantly more leaf varieties to be modelled in this way.

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Published online 22 September 2014
Blobs and curves: object-based colocalisation for plant cells 
Carl J. Nelson, Patrick Duckney, Timothy J. Hawkins, Michael J. Deeks, P. Philippe Laissue, Patrick J. Hussey and Boguslaw Obara

Quantifying the colocalisation of labels is a major application of fluorescent microscopy in plant biology. Pixel-based quantification of colocalisation, such as Pearson’s correlation coefficient, gives limited information for further analysis. We show how applying bioimage informatics tools to a commonplace experiment allows further quantifiable results to be extracted. We use our object-based colocalisation technique to extract distance information, show temporal changes and demonstrate the advantages and pitfalls of using bioimage informatics for plant science.

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Published online 19 August 2014
Automated estimation of leaf area development in sweet pepper plants from image analysis 
Graham W. Horgan, Yu Song, Chris A. Glasbey, Gerie W. A. M. van der Heijden, Gerrit Polder, J. Anja Dieleman, Marco C. A. M. Bink and Fred A. van Eeuwijk

The total area of the leaves on a plant is important in horticulture, but manually measuring it is tedious and destructive. Getting a computer to recognise and count leaves is difficult, so we have used statistical methods to relate leaf area to the variations in colour in an image. This has potential to be a big help for scientists developing and testing new crop cultivars.

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Volume 42 Number 2 2015

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Descriptive Table of Contents 
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Shoot branching in response to nodal roots is mimicked by application of exogenous cytokinin in Trifolium repens 
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Roderick G. Thomas and Michael J. M. Hay
pp. 115-125

Regulation of axillary bud outgrowth in Trifolium repens is dominated by supply of a xylem-transported stimulatory signal from nodal roots. The present study shows this stimulus could be cytokinin-based. It suggests that, in contrast to its much reduced role in erect-stemmed species, xylem-transported cytokinin plays a key role in the outgrowth of axillary buds in prostrate nodally-rooting species.


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Heterotrimeric G-proteins involved in the MeJA regulated ion flux and stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana 
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Suli Yan , Shuitian Luo , Shanshan Dong , Ting Zhang , Jingru Sun , Ningning Wang , Hongjun Yao and Yingbai Shen
pp. 126-135

Heterotrimeric G-proteins are important elements of the transmembrane signal transmission components. Researchers have indicated that MeJA induced stomatal closure in many species. However, whether heterotrimeric G-proteins involved in the MeJA induced stomatal signal cascade has not yet been evaluated. In this study, heterotrimeric G-proteins were found to regulate the transmembrane H+, Ca2+, K+ flux and then control stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana guard cells response to MeJA. This result provides new insight into the signal cascade of MeJA-induced stomatal closure.

    | Supplementary Material (649 KB)

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Ionic and photosynthetic homeostasis in quinoa challenged by salinity and drought – mechanisms of tolerance 
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Fatemeh Razzaghi , Sven-Erik Jacobsen , Christian Richardt Jensen and Mathias Neumann Andersen
pp. 136-148

Global food production is limited by salinity and drought. Quinoa is a solution, producing seed even at seawater salinities. Unlike other crops, quinoa increased uptake of potassium at high salt concentrations, maintaining photosynthesis and improving water use efficiency. The saturated electrical conductivity resulting in 50% yield was estimated to be 25 dS m–1, higher than any other known crop.


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High night temperature induces contrasting responses for spikelet fertility, spikelet tissue temperature, flowering characteristics and grain quality in rice 
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Onoriode Coast , Richard H. Ellis , Alistair J. Murdoch , Cherryl Quiñones and Krishna S. V. Jagadish
pp. 149-161

High night temperature (HNT) can significantly reduce rice yield and quality. Flowering dynamics, spikelet tissue temperature determines seed-set among diverse rice genotypes exposed to early and/or late night temperature stress. Documented for the first time is a critical night temperature threshold of 27°C beyond which reduction in spikelet fertility is induced. The different sensitivities to HNT of cultivars for spikelet fertility and quality will complement plant breeding efforts targeted towards enhancing resilience of rice cultivars to warmer climates.

    | Supplementary Material (153 KB)

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Higher flower and seed number leads to higher yield under water stress conditions imposed during reproduction in chickpea 
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Raju Pushpavalli , Mainassara Zaman-Allah , Neil C. Turner , Rekha Baddam , Mandali V. Rao and Vincent Vadez
pp. 162-174

Ten chickpea genotypes contrasting in yield under terminal stress in the field were exposed to a controlled drought treatment in the glasshouse during reproduction. The ranking for relative seed yield (yield water stress/yield well watered) in the glasshouse conditions differed from the field. High seed yield under drought was linked to higher flower, pod and seed number, especially under mild water stress, while seed size was hardly affected by the drought treatment

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Does age matter under winter photoinhibitory conditions? A case study in stems and leaves of European mistletoe (Viscum album) 
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Fátima Míguez , Beatriz Fernández-Marín , Antonio Hernández , José Maria Becerril and José Ignacio García-Plazaola
pp. 175-185

European mistletoe (Viscum album) is an evergreen hemiparasitic plant characterised by a continuous photosynthetic surface composed of leaves and stems. We have taken advantage of these traits and used this species as a perfect model plant to study the interactive effect of age and winter on photosynthetic regulation. Winter, as in other temperate evergreens, induces a downregulation of photosynthesis, which in stems is compensated by an ageing-dependent stimulatory effect. Overall, this case study supports the theory of negative senescence.

    | Supplementary Material (215 KB)

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Importance of natural cloud regimes to ecophysiology in the alpine species, Caltha leptosepala and Arnica parryi, Snowy Range Mountains, southeast Wyoming, USA 
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Adriana Sanchez , Nicole M. Hughes and William K. Smith
pp. 186-197

Natural cloud regimes across the globe are expected to change with continued global warming. Yet, little is known about the impacts on plants, except for a few studies showing potentially strong effects on photosynthetic carbon gain and transpirational water loss. We found that these changes to the natural cloud regime had substantial impacts on photosynthesis, transpiration and water use efficiency.

    | Supplementary Material (10 KB)

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Water use efficiency in Sangiovese grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) subjected to water stress before veraison: different levels of assessment lead to different conclusions 
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Maria Clara Merli , Matteo Gatti , Marco Galbignani , Fabio Bernizzoni , Eugenio Magnanini and Stefano Poni
pp. 198-208

How grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) use irrigation under drought needs to be determined. Previous work shows contradictory results regarding the method used. Single-leaf and whole-canopy methods for assessing water use efficiency (WUE) were compared in V. vinifera cv. Sangiovese subjected to progressive water deficit before veraison. Single-leaf WUE assessment was poorly correlated with yield and grape composition, whereas whole-canopy assessment was more reliable. Guidelines were that not less than 70% of daily water use should be supplied to Sangiovese vines before veraison.


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Seed coating reduces respiration losses and affects sugar metabolism during germination and early seedling growth in cereals 
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Linda Gorim and Folkard Asch
pp. 209-218

We investigated how and why cereal seedlings performed better when grown from hydro-absorber coated seeds. We analysed the proportion of reserves mobilised for growth and respiration and sucrose mobilisation and found that mobilisation efficiency was higher resulting in higher biomass when cereals were coated and in each cereal, sucrose was mobilised differently. Further investigations into oxygen availability while imbibition is occurring have to be done.

    | Supplementary Material (15 KB)

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Resilience of a semi-deciduous shrub, Cistus salvifolius, to severe summer drought and heat stress 
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Olga M. Grant , Łukasz Tronina , José I. García-Plazaola , Raquel Esteban , João Santos Pereira and M. Manuela Chaves
pp. 219-228

Climate change is expected to exacerbate summer drought in Mediterranean environments. We analysed the response of a rockrose species to a heat wave superimposed on severe drought, discovering that a combination of physiological and biochemical adjustments allowed survival, with recovery following autumn rains. The shrub’s capacity to withstand substantial seasonal variability may also buffer the impact of significant inter-annual variation in water availability, indicating potential resilience to climate change in the understorey of Mediterranean oak woodlands.


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These articles have been peer reviewed and accepted for publication. They are still in production and have not been edited, so may differ from the final published form.

    FP14262  Accepted 20 January 2015
    Effects of different temperature regimes on flower development, microsporogenesis and fertility in bolting garlic (Allium sativum))
    Einat Shemesh Mayer, Tomer Ben-Michael, Sagie Kimhi, Itzhak Forer, Haim Rabinowitch, Rina Kamenetsky

    FP14201  Accepted 15 January 2015
    Interspecific variation in branch and leaf traits among three Syzygium tree species from different successional tropical forests
    Shi-Dan Zhu, Ya-Jun Chen, Kun-Fang Cao, Qing Ye

    FP14111  Accepted 13 January 2015
    Posidonia oceanica histo-anatomical leaf variations related to depth
    Silvia Nicastro, Anna Innocenti, Nicodemo Passalacqua

    FP14141  Accepted 23 December 2014
    Nitrogen sharing and water source partitioning co-occur in estuarine wetlands
    Lili Wei, David Lockington, Shen Yu, Catherine Lovelock

    FP14212  Accepted 19 December 2014
    Roles of gibberellins and cytokinins in regulation of morphological and physiological traits in Polygonum cuspidatum responding to light and nitrogen availabilities
    Daisuke Sugiura, Koichiro Sawakami, Mikiko Kojima, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Ichiro Terashima, Masaki Tateno

    FP14226  Accepted 16 December 2014
    Image based phenotyping during winter: a powerful tool to assess wheat genetic variation in growth response to temperature
    Christoph Grieder, Andreas Hund, Achim Walter

The Most Read ranking is based on the number of downloads from the CSIRO PUBLISHING website of articles published in the previous 12 months. Usage statistics are updated daily.

Rank Paper Details
1. Published 11 February 2014
Root growth and anchorage by transplanted ‘Tifgreen’ (Cynodon dactylon x C. transvaalensis) turfgrass

Jeffrey S. Amthor and James B. Beard

2. Published 6 January 2014
Wheat genotypes with high early vigour accumulate more nitrogen and have higher photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency during early growth

Jiayin Pang, Jairo A. Palta, Gregory J. Rebetzke and Stephen P. Milroy

3. Published 30 September 2014
Genomics for drought resistance – getting down to earth

Abraham Blum

4. The structure and activity of nodulation-suppressing CLE peptide hormones of legumes

April H. Hastwell, Peter M. Gresshoff and Brett J. Ferguson

5. Published 8 April 2014
Drought resistance and soil water extraction of a perennial C4 grass: contributions of root and rhizome traits

Yi Zhou, Christopher J. Lambrides and Shu Fukai

6. Published 11 February 2014
Identification of stay-green and early senescence phenotypes in high-yielding winter wheat, and their relationship to grain yield and grain protein concentration using high-throughput phenotyping techniques

Sebastian Kipp, Bodo Mistele and Urs Schmidhalter

7. Published 14 March 2014
Awn primordium to tipping is the most decisive developmental phase for spikelet survival in barley

Ahmad M. Alqudah and Thorsten Schnurbusch

8. Published 6 January 2014
Plot size matters: interference from intergenotypic competition in plant phenotyping studies

Greg J. Rebetzke, Ralph (Tony) A. Fischer, Anthony F. van Herwaarden, Dave G. Bonnett, Karine Chenu, Allan R. Rattey and Neil A. Fettell

9. Published 7 May 2014
Variation in mesophyll conductance among Australian wheat genotypes

Eisrat Jahan, Jeffrey S. Amthor, Graham D. Farquhar, Richard Trethowan and Margaret M. Barbour

10. Published 14 August 2014
Crop yield components – photoassimilate supply- or utilisation limited-organ development?

John W. Patrick and Kim Colyvas

11. Published 8 April 2014
Soil water availability influences the temperature response of photosynthesis and respiration in a grass and a woody shrub

Tony Joseph, David Whitehead and Matthew H. Turnbull

12. Published 30 September 2014
Mucilage exudation facilitates root water uptake in dry soils

Mutez A. Ahmed, Eva Kroener, Maire Holz, Mohsen Zarebanadkouki and Andrea Carminati

13. Published 11 February 2014
PrometheusWiki Gold Leaf Protocol: gas exchange using LI-COR 6400

John R. Evans and Louis S. Santiago

14. Published 14 July 2014
Photosynthesis–nitrogen relationships in tropical forest tree species as affected by soil phosphorus availability: a controlled environment study

Keith J. Bloomfield, Graham D. Farquhar and Jon Lloyd

15. Published 8 April 2014
More fertile florets and grains per spike can be achieved at higher temperature in wheat lines with high spike biomass and sugar content at booting

M. Fernanda Dreccer, Kimberley B. Wockner, Jairo A. Palta, C. Lynne McIntyre, M. Gabriela Borgognone, Maryse Bourgault, Matthew Reynolds and Daniel J. Miralles

16. Published 14 March 2014
Differential physiological responses of different rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars to elevated night temperature during vegetative growth

Ulrike Glaubitz, Xia Li, Karin I. Köhl, Joost T. van Dongen, Dirk K. Hincha and Ellen Zuther

17. Published 14 March 2014
On the relationship between C and N fixation and amino acid synthesis in nodulated alfalfa (Medicago sativa)

Gemma Molero, Guillaume Tcherkez, Jose Luis Araus, Salvador Nogués and Iker Aranjuelo

18. Published 8 April 2014
Vapour pressure deficit aids the interpretation of cotton canopy temperature response to water deficit

Warren C. Conaty, James R. Mahan, James E. Neilsen and Greg A. Constable

19. Published 17 June 2014
Physiological, proteomic and transcriptional responses of wheat to combination of drought or waterlogging with late spring low temperature

Xiangnan Li, Jian Cai, Fulai Liu, Tingbo Dai, Weixing Cao and Dong Jiang

20. Published 7 May 2014
Stomatal pore size and density in mangrove leaves and artificial leaves: effects on leaf water isotopic enrichment during transpiration

Leonel da Silveira Lobo Sternberg and Lynn M. Manganiello

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