Functional Plant Biology
Volume 42 Number 6 2015
Chlorophylls d and f are red-shifted chlorophylls based on their significantly red-shifted absorption bands compared with chlorophyll a. Understanding the molecular mechanism of photosynthesis driven by red-shifted chlorophylls is of global importance and will contribute to cutting-edge photosynthetic research. The current research status in related to the red-shifted chlorophylls is reviewed in this review.
ABA is a plant hormone produced in plants under drought stress. On one hand, it causes the plant to conserve its water status; on the other hand, it reduces growth and productivity. This opinion review examines the available data on ABA and attempts to resolve this conundrum by formulating an appropriate crop plant phenotypic ABA ideotype for breeders to pursue within different dryland stress environments.
FP14262Effects of different temperature regimes on flower development, microsporogenesis and fertility in bolting garlic (Allium sativum)
Infertility prevents genetics research and conventional breeding in garlic. Recent achievement of fertility restoration enables extensive studies of garlic florogenesis and causes for male sterility. We report on temperature effects on flower development and pollen quality in fertile and male-sterile garlic, and on the vulnerable phases of pollen formation. It is concluded that under unstable climatic conditions, agro-management modifications will facilitate breeding and seed production in this important crop.
FP14274Comparative proteomic and physiological characterisation of two closely related rice genotypes with contrasting responses to salt stress
According to a two-phase growth response concept, genotypes with differing susceptibility to salinity usually develop distinct responses when excess salt accumulates in their tissues. In this study, two rice genotypes (IR29 and FL478) were exposed to salt stress until they showed distinct growth. Their physiology and proteome responses were analysed. The sensitivity of IR29 to salinity may be due to its inability to exclude salt, compartmentalise excess ions or maintain its photosynthetic apparatus in a healthy state under salt stress.
Growth and metabolism of green-white variegated and plain morphs of Pelargonium have been examined under nitrogen deficiency. Variegated plants performed better than non-variegated plants, owing to the remobilisation of nitrogenous compounds stored in leaf white areas. It is concluded that variegation is disadvantageous under non N-limited conditions due to the lower photosynthetic surface area, but is advantageous under nitrogen deprivation.
FP14134Temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration in a sub-Antarctic megaherb from Heard Island
Climate warming may affect carbon gain and loss, with consequences for growth of cold climate species. Responses of photosynthesis and respiration to temperature were studied in Pringlea antiscorbutica R. Br. along an altitudinal gradient on sub-Antarctic Heard Island. The results showed greater importance of thermal acclimation of respiration than photosynthesis to maintenance of favourable carbon balances with increasing temperature range.
FP14224Impact of elevated atmospheric humidity on anatomical and hydraulic traits of xylem in hybrid aspen
The Free Air Humidity Manipulation (FAHM) experiment offers unique possibilities to test trees’ acclimation capacity to increasing atmospheric humidity – a climate trend predicted for northern Europe. We investigated changes in wood anatomy and hydraulic conductivity in hybrid aspen; results showed moderate modifications in both the structure and functioning of xylem. Our results suggest that hybrid aspen is relatively insensitive to the changes in air humidity.
Carbon release from plant respiration increases with temperature. Although it is thought that low sugar concentrations limit the rate of this increase, this has not been tested at the whole-plant level. When we sugar-starved Ardisia crenata plants, respiration decreased but, surprisingly, the sensitivity of respiration to warming increased. These results highlight the complexity of the controls over plant respiration, especially at the whole-plant level.
FP14343Comparative expression profiling of three early inflorescence stages of oil palm indicates that vegetative to reproductive phase transition of meristem is regulated by sugar balance
In some cases, induction of male flower inflorescences in oil palm is difficult to accomplish. Investigation to explore part of the possible ways to induce male flower inflorescences from Pisifera oil palm and understanding the molecular processes associated with it have been investigated and answered. The findings may be important in the management of commercial oil palm production especially under changing climate conditions.